Hell is a realm or state of eternal post-mortem punishment. Buddhism denies the existence of hell but it does teach that there is a purgatorial state. There are several words for purgatory in the scriptures, the main ones being ‘loss’ (papaya), ‘to descend’ (naraka and niraya), ‘ruin’ (vinipata), and my favorate duggati meaning ‘difficult road’ or ‘bad road’. Having traverses some appalling roads in my time this name has always appealed to me. Here are some pictures of some very bad roads.